In medieval Arabic dictionaries the spelling is ʿusfur, but an oral variant ʿasfar would be unexceptional in Arabic speech and would be a little better fit to the Romance language wordforms. Medical writers who used the word in Arabic include Al-Razi (died c. Shashes are long towels of Calico wound about their heads." In the later 17th century in English, "shash" still had that original meaning, and additionally it took on the meaning of a ribbon of fine cloth wrapped around the waist.The name saffron became predominant in all the Western languages in the late medieval centuries, in word-forms that led to today's French safran, Italian zafferano, Spanish azafrán. About the beginning of the early 18th century the predominant wordform in English changed from "shash" to "sash".The flower of this plant was commercially cultivated for use as a dye in the Mediterranean region in medieval times.From the medieval Arabic word plus Arabic al-, medieval Catalan had alasfor = "safflower".
Parrots were imported to medieval Europe via Arabic speakers.
Today's European word natron, meaning hydrated sodium carbonate, is descended from the Arabic.
In Europe shortly after sodium was isolated as an element for the first time, in the early 19th century, sodium was given the scientific abbreviation Na from a newly created Latin name, initially natronium then natrium, which goes back etymologically to the medieval and early modern Arabic natrūn.
The following English words have been acquired either directly from Arabic or else indirectly by passing from Arabic into other languages and then into English.
Most entered one or more of the Romance languages before entering English.