Many types of glaze, such as the iron-containing glaze used on the celadon wares of Longquan, were designed specifically for their striking effects on porcelain. Porcelain wares may be decorated under the glaze using pigments that include cobalt and copper or over the glaze using coloured enamels.Like many earlier wares, modern porcelains are often biscuit-fired at around 1,000 °C (1,830 °F), coated with glaze and then sent for a second glaze-firing at a temperature of about 1,300 °C (2,370 °F) or greater.The manufacture of porcelain became highly organised, and the kiln sites excavated from this period could fire as many as 25,000 wares.By the time of the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 AD), porcelain wares were being exported to Europe.
Unlike their lower-fired counterparts, porcelain wares do not need glazing to render them impermeable to liquids and for the most part are glazed for decorative purposes and to make them resistant to dirt and staining.
Eventually, porcelain and the expertise required to create it began to spread into other areas of East Asia.
During the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD), artistry and production had reached new heights.
Some of the most well-known Chinese porcelain art styles arrived in Europe during this era, such as the coveted blue-and-white wares.
The Ming Dynasty controlled much of the porcelain trade, which was expanded to Asia, Africa and Europe via the Silk Road.