For example, to assess reliability of questions measured on an interval/ratio scale, internal consistency is appropriate to use. To assess reliability of knowledge questions, test-retest or split-half is appropriate. Abstract Questionnaires are the most widely used data collection methods in educational and evaluation research.This article describes the process for developing and testing questionnaires and posits five sequential steps involved in developing and testing a questionnaire: research background, questionnaire conceptualization, format and data analysis, and establishing validity and reliability.Following IRB approval, the next step is to conduct a field test using subjects not included in the sample. An analysis of research designs used in agricultural and extension education.Make changes, as appropriate, based on both a field test and expert opinion. In this final step, reliability of the questionnaire using a pilot test is carried out. Reliability indicates the accuracy or precision of the measuring instrument (Norland, 1990). Which type of validity (content, construct, criterion, and face) to use depends on the objectives of the study.The following questions are addressed in Step 4: Addressing these questions coupled with carrying out a readability test enhances questionnaire validity.
A brief description of each of the five steps follows Figure 1. Sequence for Questionnaire/Instrument Development In this initial step, the purpose, objectives, research questions, and hypothesis of the proposed research are examined.
Development of a valid and reliable questionnaire is a must to reduce measurement error.
Groves (1987) defines measurement error as the "discrepancy between respondents' attributes and their survey responses" (p. Development of a valid and reliable questionnaire involves several steps taking considerable time.
In addition, a link among the objectives of the study and their translation into content is established.
For example, the researcher must indicate what the questionnaire is measuring, that is, knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, opinions, recalling facts, behavior change, etc.